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Nonhams usually are pretty surprised to find out about ham radio satellites. Imagine — do-it-yourself satellites! As of early25 active satellites were providing ham-to-ham communications or supporting the scientific experiments of student teams by sending telemetry back to Earth.

Most amateur satellites are located in near-circular low Earth orbit, circling the planet several a times each day. Molniya is lightning in Russian and is the name given to a Russian fleet of communications satellites that travel in elliptical orbits. For practical and regulatory reasons, satellite transmissions are restricted to the bands on 15 and 10 meters and to the 2 meter, 70 cm, and microwave bands at MHz and higher.

Knowing where a particular satellite is in space allows you to operate through it. Transponder: A transponder listens on a range of frequencies on one band, translates those signals to a different band, and retransmits them in real time.

Repeater: Just like terrestrial repeaters, repeater satellites listen and receive on a specific Ham radio satellite antenna of channels. Satellite repeaters are crossband, meaning that Ham radio satellite antenna input and output Ham radio satellite antenna are Ham radio satellite antenna different bands. Digital: Digital satellites can act as bulletin boards or as store-and-forward systems. You can access both types of digital satellites by using regular packet radio protocols and equipment.

Store-and-forward satellites act as message gateways, accepting messages and downloading them to a few control stations around the world.

The control stations also pass messages back up to the satellites that are downloaded by ground-based users. Digital satellites are very useful to hams at sea or in remote locations.

Telemetry: Many student teams and other noncommercial groups whose members have licenses, like all other hams use amateur radio frequencies to build small satellites called CubeSats, which are launched into low Earth orbit as a group when a commercial satellite launch has spare payload capacity. Each CubeSat measures something or performs some interesting function and then sends a stream of digital data telemetry back to Earth.

A CubeSat may or may not be controllable by telecommand from a ham station on Earth. CubeSats typically operate for less than a month; then they gradually reenter the atmosphere and burn up. Click the Sat Status link to get complete information about what each satellite does and its current operational status.

To access satellites, you also need a satellite tracking program. Several of these Ham radio satellite antenna, including free and shareware trackers, are listed at The DXZone. AMSAT also Super busty nude women several professional-quality tracking and satellite operation programs.

How to Operate Ham Radio via Satellite.

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